Non-Prescription Drugs

The non-prescription drugs are any drug that the patient buys and takes without the prescription of the doctor. They are also known as Over The Counter or OTC drugs or pain relievers medicine. They are in effect for seeking relief from mild and moderate pain. But, it is better not to assume that all the non-prescription drugs are safe and can be easily taken. The non-prescription drugs can have side effects with other medicines. Thus, it can cause many serious health problems.

Non-prescription pain relievers or drugs are analgesics. You can buy them from the local store or chemist store. They include aspirin, such as Ascriptin, Bufferin or Ecotrin; Acetaminophen, such as Anacin-3, Datril, Tylenol; and Ibuprofen, such as Advil, Motrin, Nuprin. Most of them are available in the market with different names. However, if you have a look at the labels and ascertain them, nearly all of them contain one of these three above mentioned medicines.

Some of the non-prescription drugs should be used only with the adults or the older children. You should be very sure to go through all the instructions on the package very carefully. If you are still in doubt, better ask a pharmacist before you give the medicine to an infant or a young child. In case of a pregnant patient, the patient herself or her helper should always check and make sure with the doctor or pharmacist about the effects of the medicine prior to using any of the non-prescription medicines.

It is seen in some cases that the patients believe that the nonprescription drugs are all they need to relieve from pain, particularly when you are on the top of the pain. Those who take these drugs on the regular and contraceptive basis, these drugs are strong analgesics as the most people actually realize.

A few doses of the prescription pain relievers taken by mouth cannot be that effective as compared to two or three usual tablets of Acetaminophen or Aspirin. Research says that for most people the normal dose of nonprescription pain relievers offers as much relief from pain as prescription drugs such as Darvon or Codeine. The patient feels that when they are having pain relief from the nonprescription drugs, what is the use of taking the prescription pain drugs?

Keep all the drugs, specially the non-prescription drugs out of reach of your children and pets. At the time of discarding the drugs, be very sure to dispose of them completely, somewhere they cannot be found back.

It is also possible that for most people, the nonprescription pain reliever drugs have few side effects than the prescription pain drugs. Know about them before you take the medicine.

Some common non-prescription medications include:

  • Antacids and acid reducers
  • Activated charcoal
  • Anti Acne drugs
  • Analgesics
  • Anti-diarrheals
  • Anti-Hemorrhoid Drugs
  • Anti-Histamines
  • Antiseptics
  • Bulking agents and laxatives
  • Cold and allergy remedies
  • Cough suppressants
  • Decongestants
  • Expectorants
  • Laxative
  • Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
  • Pain relievers
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Vasodilators

Human Action Guides

The human action guides facilitate the means to have a safe, fast and efficient response for an actual emergency. Human action is significant and if it can take place in a positive way, it can curb the effect of emergency disasters.

The main purpose of human action guides is to offer an outline of the important information, purpose, and responsibilities that dish out to supplement the sound and operative emergency response plan and efforts of unified district agencies and departments.

These quick reference human action guides provide information that may surely assist the community as a whole. There are duties and responsibilities that a community expects its human force to perform in the case of actual emergency. In case of a major emergency or crisis or a disaster in the particular area, the humans are required to partner with the responsible authorities and organizations on different levels.

Participation and Action of Human Force

The impacts and losses caused by the disasters are grave. It brings financial losses as well as the emotional and physical losses. The emotional and physical loss brought by the disaster is at times even more destructive than the financial stress of damage of home, office, business or property.

Emergency incidents are sorted out as per their severeness and possible impact. The emergency event is often classified as the Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 situations.

  • The Level 1 Emergency is a minor incident, which is resolved fast with interior possessions and partial help. In this situation, the emergency plan is not followed as there is little or no impact on the human actions.
  • The Level 2 Emergency is a major emergency that disturbs the ample parts of the community. This emergency may influence the mission-critical functions and thus require human action assistance from the other organizations.
  • The Level 3 Emergency is a big disaster that includes the whole campus and nearby community. The normal operations of the area are suspended and all the organizations are engaged in emergency response.

Understanding disaster events for human action

The effects of disaster and emergency are wide and complex. Everyone who faces or experiences the disaster gets affected by it in a way or the other. You may feel anxious in the normal situation about your or your family’s safety. A human reacts normally with great grief and anger to the abnormal event.

  • Recognize your feelings that may help you to recover.
  • Focus on the strengths and abilities that may help you to heal.
  • Accept help and participation in the community resources and programs.
  • Each person has different needs and ways to cope up.
  • To take care of the children and old people is of great concern in the outcome of the disasters.


Lightning is the underestimated killer dangerous for the common gentry. Lightning is abrupt electric expulsion either from cloud to cloud or from cloud to earth followed by the emission of light. Lightning generally strikes after heavy rain and can also occur about 10 miles off from rainfall. Most lightning victims are when people are captivated outdoors in summer during afternoon and evening.

Facts about lightning

In the United States, an estimate of about 25 million lightning flashes each year. Throughout the time of the last 30 years, lightning put to death an average of 66 people each year. The reported lightning injuries in the United States average approximately 300 each year.

The threat of lightning goes on quite longer than what people think actually. You may wait not less than 30 minutes after the last strike of thunder before you leave the shelter. As you see lightning approaching, count the seconds and you will hear the thunder. Always seek shelter wasting no time.

Never get fooled by the sunshine. If the sky is cloudy or mountains or buildings hide your vision, you must keep inside immediately. Most injuries and deaths with lightning occur in the summertime. The outdoor sports activities, camp counselors, coaches, and other activities are often at the greatest risk. It is always safe to have the best precautions. Having some common sense, you can not only increase your safety but also the safety of the people around you.

Before Lightning

  • Monitor the weather before going outdoors. If lightning is forecast, stay indoors.
  • Make a plan in advance to make your safety and evacuation measures. As you first notice lightning, get your emergency plan in action.
  • Know all the emergency telephone numbers and also of the authorities.
  • Immediately go to a building or a vehicle.

During Lightning

  • Avoid the plumbing appliances and fixtures.
  • Do not employ showers or faucets.
  • While in a car, stay till the storm passes.
  • While in a boat, go to shore at once.
  • If in the forest, go out at once. If you cannot, proceed to a low-level area that has low and thick tree growth.
  • If in the open area, go to a lower area. Do not lie on the ground.
  • Do not enter the steel built concrete buildings or go near the metal objects.
  • Avert beaches, hilltops, open water and small constructions in open.
  • Hair standing on end indicates that lightning will strike. Immediately drop to your knees and bend forward. Do not lie flat but put your hands on the knees.
  • Do not come together or cluster together with other people.
  • Do not use a telephone or other electrical equipment.
  • Follow the 30-30 rule and stop all your activities at first clap thunder.

After Lightening

  • Do not panic and follow the orders of the authorities.
  • The injured persons do not have electrical charge in their body and should be taken care.
  • Use all First Aid methods to help the lightning victim. Problems such as cardiac arrest, irregularities, nerve damage, burns are common. Call 911 or send for medical help at once.


Hail comes in existence when updrafts in thunderclouds take the raindrops up towards the extremely cold areas in the atmosphere. They freeze and combine forming the lumps of ice. As the lumps be very heavy and are not supported by the updraft, they fall off with the speeds of about 100 km per hour or more. Hail is created an enormous cloud, also called as thunderheads.

Hail is very dangerous as it can cause panoptical damage in just a few minutes. Hail may or may not predate a tornado. Large hail can appear nearby the area in the thunderstorm. The tornadoes are quite likely to build in such area. The large hail begins to fall off and then one can assume that the tornado may also be nearby. After the hail stops, one should live in the safe area until the storm passes off. It is generally 15 to 30 minutes after the hail breaks off.

Facts about Hail

The season of hail in Colorado is March to October. Majority falls in May month to August. June month has high statewide regularity and Fort Collins has hail most ofttimes in May. The largest size of hail falls in July and August months. Hail primarily happens in afternoon or evening in Colorado. Most of the harsh hailstorms take place between 1:00 p.m. and 9:00 p.m.

The median duration is about 6 minutes and on rare occasions, hailstorms last for more than 15 minutes. Large hail is larger than ¾ inches in diameter. Deep Hail is hail that has amassed a foot deep or more and is flowing. The common size for hail is 1 to 1 ½ inches in diameter. In Colorado, the most common size for hail is 1/4″. The greatest recognized hailstone of 5 ½ inches in diameter fell in Kansas and weighed about 2 pounds.

What to do in hailstorms to avoid personal injury or property damage

  • When in a car, stand back from the car windows. Cover your eyes. Get on the floor with your face down. Lay down on your seat with back towards the windows. Cover your small children under you and cover their eyes.
  • When in the home or any building, stay inside. Don’t go inside the basement or the windows. They can especially be struck due to hail. Take care of all your family members, fellow occupants, pets, etc. you must not go outside for any reason.
  • Move all the weak items such as equipment, cars, and machinery in shelter as hail threatens. Take care that such action does not create any risk for you.
  • If you are caught outdoor, keep all the chances of injury to yourself only. You may crouch down and protect your head and neck completely.
  • Protect your pets and the livestock.
  • Do not use telephones and electrical appliances at the time of dangerous storm to avoid the danger of burning due to lightning.
  • Keep off from the areas struck with deep hail.
  • Stay away from culverts and plain areas to keep away from being swept away by deep hail.

Preparedness Guides

The preparedness guides has the objective of direct spread of information to the general public. The preparedness guides are designed specially to make the citizens aware about how they can protect themselves and their families against natural or man-made hazards. It asks you directly “Are you prepared?” And, if you are not it tells you how you can be. The guide is meant to take up as a reference source. It can be seen as a step-by-step manual to prepare to counter emergency.

The focus of the information mentioned here is to tell people how they can develop an emergency plan of action, practice it and maintain them. The plans should be prepared beforehand. They must know what they can do before hand or during and even after the disaster to protect themselves, people around them and their property.

You will also get information here about how you can make use of and assemble the disaster supplies kits. These kits are very important to have at the time of emergency as they contain food, water and all other important supplies in adequate quantity for you and your family. The disaster supplies kit makes you independent to survive after a disaster in the event so that you may completely rely on your own resources.

Follow these guidelines to prepare for emergencies as per the natural disaster guides:

Learn what can happen to you

  • Know beforehand what types of disasters can happen to you most likely. Also, have the information about how you can prepare for the each one.
  • Know how you can help the elderly or handicapped people when required.
  • Find out regarding the disaster plans that you can have at the workplace or your kids’ school or care center and all other places where you or your family passes time.
  • Learn how to do animal care after a disaster. They may or may not be allowed in the emergency shelters owing to the health policies.

Make a Disaster Plan

  • Sit with your family to discuss the importance of a disaster plan. Talk about the dangers of earthquake, fire, bad weather, tornado, etc to your family. Make a plan to face emergency and share responsibilities. You should work together as a team for the best safety results.
  • Plan a course of action in each case of emergency.
  • Select places to meet in case of an emergency.
  • Make a friend who lives out of state as your family contact. In case of disaster, one can call long distance easily. Your family members can call the family contact easily to tell inform them where are they.
  • Plan out what you need to do at the time of evacuation.

Make Checklist

  • Take all the desired numbers from your emergency preparedness office.
  • Write all emergency telephone numbers, such as fire, police, ambulance, etc in your telephone diary.
  • Teach your children how and when to call 911 for an emergency.
  • Ask the authorities about how they will warn you about the emergency.
  • Learn about the evacuation routes of your community.

Water Damage

Water damage can bring a huge damage to your home, its neighborhood and your city. It is very important that you need to prepare for water damage. You must know what you should do during and after water damage.

What to do when water damage happens

  • If water leak happens and there is flooding
  • From the great number of sources like clogged drains, damaged skylights, broken pipes, windows or construction faults
  • Keep your calm always.
  • If you see any electrical appliance or outlet near the place of water damage, be extremely cautious and avoid all chances of electrocution. If you see any possible danger, you should immediately leave the area.
  • When you identify the source of leak and you are confident that you can stop it, you must unclog drain, turn off water supply, disconnect all appliances from the wall, floor sockets etc.
  • Behave as you are directed and help the authorities as they direct you to protect the objects in endangerment. Take all the important steps to keep off or remove quick water damage. You can cover the objects with plastic sheets and move them out of danger.
  • Wear protective such as long sleeves clothes and latex gloves.
  • If mold is there, you can wear the respirator.
  • In case of any health hazard, contact the doctor and mycologist in case of infection.
  • Always wash your hands following the usage materials with mold.

Recovery of water damage with mold

  • Live mold may look either fuzzy or slimy.
  • Do not try to take off the active mold. The inactive mold looks dry and powdery. Always see and follow the safety precautions to handle the mold.
  • Stop the mold outbreaks by working to improve the environmental conditions.
  • The humidity levels must be kept very low. They can possibly be below 50%. You must use the dehumidifier. The low temperatures are recommended to be below 68° F.
  • The short exposure to sunlight and outdoor air circulation can help to dry the mold items quite rapidly.
  • There can be light damage due to water, such as fading. You should use this treatment only with materials where the light damage is possible.
  • When the mold becomes dormant by way of drying, you can easily remove it. It is easy to use a vacuum cleaner or the soft brush for this purpose.
  • After you vacuum it, it is better to dispose of the bag. You must clean the brush to keep off the spread of the mold spores.
  • Your safety precautions are very important.
  • Water damage to materials can be irretrievable.
  • Use fans to offer utmost air circulation. You should not aim the fans straight at the drying objects.
  • Absorb the additional moisture using the paper, clean sponge, bath towels, etc.

First Aid

To make first aid kit is very important as it comes handy at the time of emergency. It is the complete set of medicines and bandages that provides you first aid in an emergency. The first aid kit has to be very well kept and should be very easy to be accessed at the time of emergency.

The first aid kit to be used at the time of emergency should have all the important tools that are required at the time of emergency. You should be able to use it at the time when disasters strike as tornadoes, earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanoes etc and any other kind of emergency, before one can actually use the medical aid.

Be very sure to keep your first aid kit in a safe and secure location. It should be well accessed after the strike of the emergency situation. Your job does not end as you make a first aid kit for yourself. There are some more jobs too to be done by you. You have to rotate all the first aid supplies in the kit to keep all of them new and fresh. You have to be especially very sure when the first aid kit is kept in your vehicle. This is mainly due to the reason that the exposure to heat may make the shelf life of the first aid supplies short.

We recommend here that you bring your first aid supplies up to date twice in a year. One basic rule of thumb is that you should refresh the kits quite often. Check for damaged bandages, expired medicines, ointments, syrups or creams and replace them at once.

The basic ingredients for the first aid at the time of emergency is –

  • Band-Aids
  • Antiseptic soap or alcohol preps or wipes
  • Antibiotic creams and ointment
  • Skin ointments
  • Tweezers
  • Moleskin
  • Ace bandages
  • Plastic bandages
  • Adhesive bandages
  • Extra large plastic bandages
  • Fingertip bandages
  • Butterfly bandages
  • Sterile bandage rolls
  • Spray bottle with bleach solution to disinfect
  • A thermometer in a strong case
  • Non-Aspirin pain reliever
  • Medicines for diseases like cold and diarrhea
  • Prescriptions in original packages and medications
  • When hiking in the isolated fields, take ace bandage, tape, space blanket and bandages in the first aid kit.
  • For eye first aid kits, it should have the lens prescription, extra glasses in solid protective case and required medicines and solutions.
  • Extra medicines and prescriptions for the family members including children and other age-specific criteria over counter medicines.
  • Antibiotic
  • Diarrhea medication
  • Eye drops
  • Ear and nose drops
  • Insect repellent
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Latex gloves
  • Surgical mask
  • Gauze pads
  • Cotton swabs
  • Adhesive tape
  • Tongue depressors
  • Triangular bandage for a sling
  • Splint material
  • Instant heat and cold packs
  • Skin disinfectant spray
  • Cold and cough medicine


Flood is one of the most common hazards in the United States and other parts of the world. The effects of flood may be local to a neighborhood or community. If it casts a large impact, the whole river basin and multiple states can be affected. Each state is at risk due to this hazard.

All floods are not the same. Some floods take time to develop and at times they may take just a few days time. Flash floods may build up quickly even without any noticeable signs of rain. They have a grave wall of loud water-bearing rocks, mud, and debris carrying along. Flooding is also caused by dam breaking and causing the effects like flash floods.

You should be cautious of a flood, no matter where you live. Be especially alert, if you reside in low lying areas or near water or downstream from a dam. The small gullies, streams, culverts, creeks, streambeds can also flood.

Before the Flood

  • Do not build the floodplain except you may elevate and support your home.
  • Lift up the water heater, electric board, furnace if they are liable to flood.
  • Install the check valves in sewer holes to put off flood water from clogging in the drains in or near your home.
  • Make barriers to block off floodwater from flowing in the building.

During the Flood

  • Listen to the radio or television for information.
  • Turn off all the utilities when instructed to do so and also otherwise.
  • Do not touch the electric equipment being wet or standing in water.
  • Do not walk by the moving water because six inches of flowing water can make you fall. If you really need to walk in water, go where water is not flowing. You can take a stick to ensure the firmness of the ground in your front.
  • While driving, do not go in the flooded areas. If you get caught in floodwaters, you should leave your car and if you can, take refuge to high ground.
  • Be alert of streams, canyons, drainage channels, and other areas where flood is possible. These are the areas where a flood can happen suddenly without prior alert or even rain.

After a Flood

  • Listen to news reports and know whether the water supply of your community is safe to drink.
  • Do not face the floodwaters as it may be dirty with oil or sewage. It may even be charged electrically from the drowned power lines.
  • Do not enter the areas where the floodwaters have affected. The roads can be weak and can collapse due to the weight of the car.
  • Come back home only when authorities tell you to do so.
  • Clean and sterilize everything that got drowned in the flood water. The mud left in the floodwater can have sewage and chemicals that can be very dangerous.

Natural Disaster Guides

Natural disaster guide is to provide useful disaster safety information to the general public and make them prepared for the emergency. The users of the guide can be meteorologists, disaster educators, emergency managers, media public relations officer, teachers, mitigation specialists, and other. Use the natural disaster guides’ tips as it suits your country and its landscape.

The natural disaster guides hereby include all the relevant action and awareness messages that are made specifically to help the people. Using the guide, the people can reduce their chances of injury or loss in the course of the natural and man-made disasters.

There are awareness messages that offer general information related to the threats offered by the particular type of disaster. The action messages describe the plan of action and tell the people about what they should do in order to prepare themselves. Detailed explanations are made in simple and straightforward language to tell people how to do it.

To be prepared to face the emergency of natural disasters, you should also know what are the different natural disasters that can strike you.


A hurricane is a cyclone that develops mainly in the tropical areas. It generally has a minimum wind speed of 74 miles per hour approximately. The wind revolves in the counterclockwise direction about the center of the storm. In the case of an intense hurricane, the wind can go more than 150 mph with blows more than 200 mph outside the center of the storm. At the time of a tornado, you may move to a small interior room at the low side of the floor of a building that is quite safe from the hurricane. For more safety tips, please read our complete section on Hurricanes.


The tornadoes occur over land and can be characterized by a funnel shape cloud that extends towards the ground. The force winds of tornadoes may gust to over 200 mph. It can cause extensive and substantial damage to the buildings. The wind blows to about 150 mph and can destroy many houses altogether. These attacking winds can topple several trees that may fall on the houses and may disrupt the electrical services of the area. The tornadoes force winds may even create a dangerous barrage from the metal siding, roof material, and furniture kept at outdoors. The basic rule that goes for safety from destructive winds of tornado is similar to the ones for safety from tornadoes. For more safety tips, please read our complete section on tornadoes.

The general tips from natural disaster guides :

  • More and more information about the natural disasters that may strike in your area.
  • Get Know about the hazards and emergencies that may arise from natural disasters and how it can affect you and your family.
  • Make an emergency plan according to the information you get.
  • Collect all the things important to make for a disaster supplies kit.
  • Decide where to get shelter from the natural disaster.
  • Make out the community warning systems and announcement of evacuation routes.
  • Know what you can do for the particular disasters.
  • Practice and maintain your plan accordingly.


It is a smart idea to prepare yourself and your family at the time of emergency that can save lives. To save food for emergency times and how to handle safe food practices is a significant part of preparing oneself to deal with the disasters. It can not only save a life but also prevent the foodborne illness in the event of natural disasters, accidents or terrorist attacks.

Preparing for Food Emergency

Get to know the risks of natural occurrence in your area that could become emergencies, such as winter storms and other winter hazards, tornadoes, earthquakes or landslides, power outages, floods and large-scale accidents such as chemical spills. Unfortunately, no country is immune to terrorism. Be aware of the dangers that could be presented by an intentional act and listen to the guidance from official authorities.

Food Safety Tips During Emergencies

  • Be very sure to have a careful inspection of all the food items
  • Do not eat the food that you consider to be unsafe. If you are in doubt, you should always make it a point to throw it out.
  • Check the food kept in your refrigerators or freezers. See if there is any sign of spoilage. You can ask the retailers and restaurant people to tell you how they have kept the food safe at the time of power failures.
  • Be aware of all bacteria and dangerous contaminations that may be fatal.
  • If the flood water has intruded inside and has contaminated the fresh meat and even packaged food, throw it off. Do the same in case of food contamination with snow, animal waste, chemicals, soil, dirt and other foreign materials coming from the outside environment.
  • Even when you see the food as dry, it is indeed not safe to use.
  • Always be cautious of the home canned foods kept in the glass containers, if contaminated with dangerous materials.
  • The food that is airtight sealed in containers can be considered safe. They can be the containers such as juice boxes, metal cans and the packages of frozen dry meals.
  • Before storing food, you should always clean and disinfect containers. The containers that are bulbous or damaged should be considered unsafe. You must throw them off.
  • You can clean the containers by washing them in the strong detergent solution. Always make all food preparing equipment, dishes, surfaces, and the utensils sanitize. Then you can immerse them in the solution made by mild bleach and water for about two minutes. To make the solution, you can take 5 ml or 1 tsp bleach in every 750 ml or 3 cups of water. After this, you can make them air dry to avoid possible contamination as you open the containers.
  • Keep your food in a refrigerator as it can keep perishable foods chilled temporarily.